DESCRIPTION: Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports physical therapists. Despite its purported benefits and frequent use, evidence demonstrating its efficacy is scarce.Momidik: The intro was Nigeria hand gesture. Moreover from the Nigeria Yoruba tribal, western part of Nigeria. 18
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Stem cells, angiogenesis and muscle healing: a potential role in massage therapies?
Massage For The Initiated free. Soapy Massage Plus Sex is Very Good male to female massage health fun mumbai service call ravi malhotra -. Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports A massage program was initiated 10 minutes after exercise, with one leg from each . Motion Manual Therapy Techniques • Joint mobilization and passive range of motion initiated to MP joint Soft Tissue Techniques • Scar massage initiated over .
Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports physical
Massage for the iniated. Despite its purported benefits and frequent use, evidence demonstrating its efficacy is scarce. To identify literature relating to sports massage and its role in effecting an athlete's psychological readiness, in enhancing sports performance, in recovery from exercise and competition, and in the treatment of sports related musculoskeletal injuries.
Electronic databases were used to identify papers relevant to this review. The following keywords were searched: Research studies pertaining to the following general categories were identified and reviewed: Despite the fact clinical research been performed, a poor appreciation exists for the appropriate clinical use of sports massage.
Additional studies examining the physiological and psychological effects of sports massage are necessary in order to assist the sports physical therapist in developing and implementing clinically significant evidence based programs or treatments. Massage has been utilized in the treatment of illness and injury for thousands of years by health care practitioners.
Physical therapists who specialize in sports medicine often utilize massage techniques to aid an athlete's recovery from intense exercise or as a treatment option when performing clinical rehabilitation. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the current literature relating to sports massage and its roles in effecting an athlete's psychological readiness, in enhancing sports performance, in recovery from exercise and competition, and in the treatment of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries.
Recommendations are discussed highlighting the need for additional research in sports massage. The following electronic databases were used to identify papers relevant to this review: If fewer than articles were identified by a search strategy, the study abstracts were reviewed from that category in order to identify potentially relevant papers.
The reference list of each of the
Massage for the iniated papers was also reviewed in order to identify additional relevant publications. The rationale for these inclusion and exclusion criteria was to identify papers that investigate the use of massage in all facets of athletic care. The massage techniques included for review in this paper were based upon their prevalence within the literature and their preference among physical therapists.
Massage protocols investigating efficacy for non-sports related injuries or chronic conditions were considered beyond the scope of this review.
Sports massage is defined as a collection of massage techniques performed on athletes or active individuals Massage for the iniated the purpose of aiding recovery or treating pathology. Effleurage techniques are performed along the length of the muscle, typically in a distal to
Massage for the iniated sequence. The information about to be presented is summarized in Table 3 — 6.
The reader should refer to Table 2 when referring to the information on Tables 3 — 6. Adapted from Sackett DL Athletes routinely prepare both physically and psychologically prior to competition. Athletes typically incorporate one or more of the following pre-competition preparation strategies: Camborn et al 15 investigated the effect of massage on a recipient's blood pressure BP. Twenty five massage therapy students provided massage treatments to current massage therapy clients.
Six different massage techniques were used including Swedish, deep tissue, myofascial Massage for the iniated, sports, trigger point, and craniosacral. The authors found that clients receiving Swedish Massage for the iniated effleurage and petrissage
Massage for the iniated the greatest reduction in blood pressure, whereas those who had received trigger point therapy and sports massage experienced an increase in blood pressure.
The study also lacked controls for the duration of the massage 30 to 90 and
Massage for the iniated massage techniques performed. Theoretically, an athlete who is experiencing pre-game anxiety or stress may increase his or her risk of sustaining an injury or of having a sub-par performance. The massages consisted of effleurage, petrissage, and friction techniques with a treatment emphasis on the upper torso.
Limitations in study design threaten the strength of the findings. This investigation lacked a true control group. The subjects in the relaxation therapy group were required to independently perform the program on their own at home. To ensure that dancers fully complied with the relaxation program, each relaxation session should have been performed under the supervision an examiner.
Micklewright et al 19 investigated the effects of a pre-performance massage on mood state. Sixteen subjects 10 male and 6 female university students participated in the study. During the first session a subject received either 30 minutes of massage or rested 30 minutes on his or her back. After the treatment intervention subjects completed a standard Wingate anaerobic cycling test. The POMS questionnaires were also completed after the treatment intervention and after the cycling test. The investigators Massage for the iniated that cycling performance was better after the massage compared to the control group, but this improvement was unrelated to changes in mood state.
Additional studies have investigated how massage effects an athlete's perception of recovery and regeneration. Athletes and coaches are constantly fine tuning their training strategies in order to develop a competitive edge. The use of therapeutic modalities, such as thermal agents, electrical stimulation, and massage are often performed for this purpose.
Despite Massage for the iniated frequency that massage treatments are performed, only a few studies exist in the literature that have investigated the effect of massage on sports performance Table 4. A common perception held by athletes and coaches is that adequate flexibility will decrease the risk of injury and enhance performance.
While these claims may be debatable and beyond the scope of this papermassage has been investigated as a strategy to increase range of motion. Barlow et al 23 investigated the immediate effects of massage on hamstring flexibility in physically active young men.
The subjects either received a minute massage performed by a massage therapist consisting of effleurage and petrissage strokes to the hamstring muscles bilaterally or a minute supine rest.
Three pre-test and post-test sit and reach measurements were performed with the best one recorded. Investigators were blinded to who had received which intervention. The subjects were also blinded when performing the sit and reach test to avoid subject bias threats to validity.
The authors concluded that a single bout of hamstring massage did not have a significant effect upon sit and Massage for the iniated scores. Although the authors found no significant change among the small sample size, they did find that those who had low pre-test reach scores less than 15 cm had a higher percentage of change in reach versus those who had a cm or greater reach.
While Barlow et al 23 failed to demonstrate a statistically significant change in flexibility, Hopper et al 24 found massage made significant short term changes in hamstring flexibility.
Female field hockey players from Western Australia's Premier League were recruited for the study. The classic massage consisted of effleurage, kneading petrissageand shaking techniques for an 8-minute treatment. The DSTM treatment consisted of classic massage strokes and a dynamic treatment approach. This technique was applied while first passively extending the subject's knee, then while the subject actively extended their own knee, and finally while the therapist passively extended the knee while the subject performed an eccentric contraction of their hamstring muscle.
Both techniques immediately created statistically significantly changes in hamstring lengths as measured by the PKE test. The flexibility changes though were not Massage for the iniated at 24 hours in either group. In a subsequent investigation by Hopper et al, 25 they reported significant increases in hamstring flexibility after performing the DSTM program when compared to a classic massage approach or a control group. While the DTSM protocol had a greater effect on immediate hamstring flexibility gains post-test measurements conducted seconds after treatmentthe clinical significance of these results is difficult to extrapolate.
While it appears that some athletes may experience improvements in hamstring flexibility after one massage, these changes appear to be transient. a short term goal is to increase an athlete's flexibility, more efficient methods may exist especially in the absence of an adequately staffed sports medicine team.
Brooks et al 27 assessed the effects of massage on power grip performance after maximal exercise in healthy adults. The authors conducted a pre-test and post-test study design with subjects randomized to one of four intervention groups. The testing protocol consisted of a pre-test grip strength measurement, the exercise protocol to fatigue the muscles of the hand, the intervention, a 5-minute rest and the strength measurement.
After the exercise period, the subjects were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: It was also observed that grip performance after massage was significantly greater in the non-dominant versus the dominant arm.
The most clinically relevant outcome was that the massage intervention demonstrated better results than the natural recovery of the control group. Mancinelli et al 28 investigated the effects of massage on female collegiate athletes when performed at the beginning of the basketball and volleyball seasons. Twenty-two NCAA division I women's basketball or volleyball players were recruited 11 allocated to the treatment group and 11 serving as controls.
A minute massage consisting of effleurage, petrissage, and vibration techniques was performed on the day of predicted peak soreness as predicted by the strength coach. The authors found that the massage intervention helped to significantly increase vertical jump, led to a significant increase a slowing of shuttle run times, and significantly decreased the athlete's perceived soreness.
While the results suggest that performing a massage at an opportune time will have positive functional outcomes, the results of this study are in question due to significant design flaws. These flaws include a small sample size, the inability to control for the pre-season conditioning levels of the athletes, and the reliance upon the subjective prediction by the strength coach as to the date of expected peak muscle soreness.
Delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS is a common physiological response experienced by athletes after initiating or resuming an exercise routine, after increasing exercise intensity, or after performing eccentric forms of training i. Theoretically, it would be beneficial to prescribe modalities that could either prevent the onset or decrease the impact of DOMS.
Six theories have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of DOMS. Massage has been proposed as a treatment modality Massage for the iniated increase blood flow. The rationale behind the lactic acid theory is that lactic acid produced after exercise contributes to the pain and soreness experienced by the athlete. Many amateur sports such as track and field, boxing, and swimming may require athletes to participate in several events or matches during a short period of time.
Hemmings et al 20 studied the effects of massage on both physiologic and perceived recovery in eight amateur boxers. The investigators designed a testing protocol to Massage for the iniated if massage performed between bouts of simulated boxing matches would help to improve physiologic variables blood glucose and lactate concentrationsperformance, and the athlete's perception of recovery.
The experimental design consisted of a minute active warm up period, five 2-minute rounds of simulated boxing matches with 1-minute rest periods between each round, an intervention period minute massage or no massagea minute rest period a time period representative of the period of time between events or matchesa second minute active warm up period, and a repeat of the aforementioned boxing simulation.
Four of the eight boxers served as controls during the first round of testing. During the second round of testing, the boxers switched groups. During the intervention period, the Massage for the iniated either received a massage or rested lying on a mat. Blood lactate testing was performed before and after each boxing simulation and after the intervention.
During the rest period, each boxer completed a perceived recovery scale. The authors chose to measure performance by comparing mean peak punching force per round.
The authors found that regardless of whether the athlete received a massage or had rested in a supine position, the mean punching force decreased during the second boxing simulation. As previously indicated the authors found that the massage intervention Massage for the iniated a statistically significant effect on the boxers' perception of recovery. Massage intervention also did not affect blood lactate concentrations and, surprisingly, boxers who had received the massage intervention presented with significantly higher lactate concentrations during the second simulation.
Robertson et al 32 examined the effects of massage on lactate clearance, muscular power output, and fatigue after bouts of high intensity training.
Nine male athletes rugby, football, or field hockey were recruited for the study. A testing protocol began with a standardized warm up period consisting of 5-minutes of cycling and 3-minutes of static
Massage for the iniated for the hamstrings, calf, and quadriceps muscles.
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- Erratum in Br J Sports Med.
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